The Coin Speaks – Pre Independence Regal Issues.

In my previous post about coins, I said about the 1/12th ANNA coin in which I took interest and tried to find out about the then monetary system.

After winning the Battle of Plassey (1757) followed by Buxar (1764) the British East India Company got a political hold over the Province of Bengal and from then till the Revolt of 1857 the Br E.I.C. ruled over a major part of the Indian Sub-Continent. With the Transfer of Power from the Br.E.I.C. to the British Crown, the monetary system underwent a change too. Though I am personally not aware of how commonly in use were the coins of the the E.I.C in everyday transaction, but the Regal Issues were certainly used. 

Back in those days (mid 19th to early 20th Century) 1 Rupee had a significantly high value. Fractional system was in use and Indians were quite used to making calculations using the Fractional System. Fractional Method was introduced in the Monetary System by  . Since then it had been widely used. The British continued this fractional currency system and introduced a new series of coins which are known as Regal Issues after 1857 upto 1947. 

The best thing about this Fractional system is the use of Mathematics and the complex nature of it. 1 Rupee is divided into almost 256 parts. In today’s context 1 Rupee is almost invalueable, but 100 years ago it was very valuable.

The RUPEE was divided into ANNAS which was divided into PAISE/PICE which was further divided into PIES. 

The Calculation is as follows :

1 Rupee = 16 Annas or 64 Pice/Paise or 192 Pies or 256 Damadis.

1 Rupee = 16 Annas

1/2 Rupee = 8 Annas – Athanni/Dheli

1/4 Rupee = 4 Annas – Chawanni/Pavala

1/8 Rupee = 2 Annas – Dawanni/Beda

1/16 Rupee = 1 Anna – Ekanni

1/32 Rupee = 1/2 Anna -Athanni/Taka/Paraka

1/64 Rupee = 1/4 Anna = 1 Pice or 1 Paisa or Quarter Anna – Kani

1/128 Rupee = 1/8 Anna = 1/2 Pice/Paisa -Dhela

1/192 Rupee = 1/12 Anna = 1/3 Pice/Paisa – Pie/Pies

1/256 Rupee = 1/16 Anna = 1/4 Pice/Paisa – Damadi/Damari

The above calculation may seem complicated but if read carefully one can understand it.

1 Rupee is divided into 16 Annas or 64 Pice/Paise.

1 Anna is divided into 4 Pice/Paise

1 Pice or Paisa is divided into 3 and 4 parts, the 3rd being a Pie and the 4th being a Damadi.

Thus the Pie (1/12th Anna) and Damadi (1/16th Anna) are such miniscule amounts in today’s context but back then they were a part of everyday transaction.

The Obverse of the coins had the face value, either in words or figures, with a border of floral-creeper pattern. The Reverse had the bust of the then ruling British monarch. 

From 1862 to 1901 – Queen Victoria

From 1901 to 1910 – King Edward VII

From 1910 to 1936 – King George V

From 1937 to 1947 – King George VI

Such was the intricacy and complexity of coinage which needs to be appreciated. After Independence, Indian coinage underwent a reform and a new decimalized system came into use.

Stay tuned for the next article on Post Independence Coinage.
#commemoration #coins #coincollecting #coincollection #coincollector #coinpower #numismatic #numismatics #numismatica #numismaticahobby #coincollectionhobby #hobby #india #indiancoin  #5rupees  #worldofcoins  #coinlover #coinlovers #coincollectorsofinstagram #coincollectors #worldcoins #worldcoinjewelry #worldcoinsnotes #coinworld #historygeeks #historylovers #history #preindependence #indian #incredibleindia #historyfreaks #legacy #legacies #memoirs #past #quarteranna #1938 #1/12anna #britishraj #britishrajcoins #britishindiacoins #indiancoins #oldcoins #vintagecoins #numismatica #numismatist #numismatic #numismatics #oldindiancoins #georgev #george5 #georgevi #george6 #kingemperor 

The Coin Speaks – Numismatic Heritage of India.

When I was in the midst of my coin collection hobby, I stumbled upon an old coin from the era of the British Raj. The almost worn out coin had 1/12 ANNA written on it as its denomination. I was quite aware about the ANNA as a denomination/value in the old monetary system. But what had the 1/12 to do as a value ? What was its value in the current monetary system ?

Upon researching and asking people around and reading stuff on coinage in India, I got to know quite a lot which I thought should be shared with others.

India’s Numismatic legacy goes back to the ancient period of the Janapada-Mahajanapada Era (12th – 6th Century B.C.) when the first punchmarked coins were used. From then onwards it became a prominent medium of exchange and economic value. In the medieval period Sultan Sher Shah Suri introduced a monetary reform in which he introduced 3 denominations v.i.z. DAM (Copper), RUPEE/RUPAIYAH (Silver) and ASHRAFI/MOHUR (Gold). He is credited for the  FRACTIONAL SYSTEM that he brought in use where, say, denominations are divided into SUB-DENOMINATIONS. 

A system similar to this , rather based on this continued till the time the Independent, Republic of India changed to the DECIMAL SYSTEM

When the British East India Company got a strong hold over Indian Politics, they did introduce coinage in the company’s name. During that period i.e. 18th – 19th century, the many Princely States in India also continued issuing their own currency. 

After the Revolt of 1857, the transfer of power from the British E.I.C. to the British Crown took place and the REGAL ISSUES were introduced from 1862 to 1947. The Obverse had denominations in full or fractions and the reverse had a bust of the then ruling British Monarch. Till 1950, when the Republic of India changed to Decimal system, the fractional system was in use. It was an extremely complex system where one had to be good in maths to understand the transactions. With things made far simpler in the later years , this fractional system seems very confusing. 

Regal issues in the name of the British Crown.

When the decimal system was introduced, it was called as the NAYE PAISE issues meaning NEW PAISE coins. And then years later when the decimal system got rooted firmly , it changed to simply paise issues. 

With India on the path of development and modernization and with overall progress in other fields, it got reflected on the coins of various denominations in the form of images on the reverse of the coins.

Post-Independence issues.

The journey of coinage and its development in just the Pre-British, Post-Bristish till current times is so intriguing, let alone the whole of India through its ages.

Stay tuned for more on Indian Coinage.

#commemoration #coins #coincollecting #coincollection #coincollector #coinpower #numismatic #numismatics #numismatica #numismaticahobby #coincollectionhobby #hobby #india #indiancoin  #5rupees  #worldofcoins  #coinlover #coinlovers #coincollectorsofinstagram #coincollectors #worldcoins #worldcoinjewelry #worldcoinsnotes #coinworld #historygeeks #historylovers #history #preindependence #indian #incredibleindia #historyfreaks #legacy #legacies #memoirs #past #quarteranna #1938 #1/12anna #britishraj #britishrajcoins #britishindiacoins #indiancoins #oldcoins #vintagecoins #numismatica #numismatist #numismatic #numismatics #oldindiancoins #georgev #george5 #georgevi #george6 #kingemperor 

Green Escapes

I dont exactly remember as to when I developed a liking for gardening, but it started with my aunt gifting me rose saplings on my birthday. I was overjoyed to have plants in my possesion which would now bear beautiful flowers and the fact that they would be all mine. Everyday i would enjoy watching every bit of that plant growing and at that age felt quite amused. 

But today, about 10 – 12 years after recieving the gifted plants I now boast of a good collection of plants which I have been taking care of since a few years now. Its in these couple of years that I developed a craziness for my green buddies. With space constraints as I stay in a metro like Mumbai (erstwhile Bombay), open space is a rare commodity. So in the balconies of my flat, I have my own green world.

2 years ago I did a course on Bonsai and instantly fell in love with that art. Though it expects the person to be patient with the plant he is working on, its a great way to grow plants in confined spaces, make them look aesthetically beautiful, apart from the misconceptions popular about bonsai.

Jade Bonsai in training.

Utilizing every milimeter of space available, my balconies are jammed with plants and yet the hunger for more has not satiated. I then shifted to hanging plants. I got the carpenter guy to screw up some hooks on my balcony ceiling and there i had a batch of few hanging pots ready with flowering succulent varieties.

Portulaca and Aptenia grow well in hanging pots.

I also have a bluebellvine also known as clitoria ternatea. Its a creeper that grows quite tall and bears blue flowers which contrast with the green leaves. A regular pruning of the vine to maintain its height is all thats needed.

Clitoria ternatea flowers and vine.

I have so far experimented with growing capsicums, chillies, spinach, and other herbs by simply sowing the seeds. 

Do follow me on instagram for more photos and posts.

My recent new found love is ‘Kokedama’. Kokedama is a japanese word which literaly means MossBall. A plant is wrapped in a ball of potting mixture first and then that is wrapped with moss and tied with thread. Its either hanged or kept on a dish.

Aralia Kokedama – grown from cuttings.

People unnecessarily create a fuss about gardening, but starting with the simplest, cheapest and easily available things one could have a small garden of their own. Basic knowledge about plants can be sought from the internet. Many plants in my collection have been and can be simply grown from cuttings, seeds etc. 

Beautiful Portulaca flowers grown from cuttings.

Gardening gives me so much relaxation, mental peace. My day starts with having a look at my greens, a quick glance to see which flowers are blooming today, which ones are getting new shoots, if there are any pests or not and so on.  I usually water them in the evenings, so that time is MY OWN TIME, its my space. Gardening has given me, gives me and will give me a lot of joy and happiness. Happy Gardening.

#kokedama #aesthetics #flowers #garden #photography #nature #travelwriter #travel #instatravel #travelgram #tourism #instago #passportready #wanderlust #ilovetravel #instavacation #postcardsfromtheworld #traveldeeper #worldtravel #worldplaces #aroundtheworld #travelphotography  #darlingescapes #letsgoeverywhere  #timeoutsociety #beautifulindia #incredibleindia #indiapictures #india #passionpassport #gardeninglovers #gardenphotography #gardenharvest #harvest #farmfresh #spinach #farming #agriculture #harvesting #earlymorning #morning #goodmorning #kitchengarden #kitchengardens #kitchengardening #gardeninglove #gardening #gardeningisfun #gardeninglife #gardeningtips #gardening_in_nature #garden_styles #garden_explorers #garden_style #garden_lovers #lovegarden #lovegardening #likesforlikes

The Joy of Writing

When I was in school, we were taught to write in Cursive Roman script as I studied in English medium school. Since then I worked hard on my handwriting skills and would always look forward to improving it. Practice books, slates, different writing instruments etc were put to use and it would feel like a very big achievement to have the most beautiful and neat writing in class. But gone is this skill and the importance behind it as handwriting in general is out of fashion. Today everyone just ‘Types’ (the way I am doing now). Even gone are the typewriters and the peculiar sound they made.
According to Graphologists, good handwriting has many plus points as it activates the brain due to the complex motor and cognitive skills involved in it; it helps people with dyslexia; reading fluency due to visual perception of letters and much more.

Apart from calligraphic point of view where the writing style of the alphabet is experimented with and altered to suit the theme or look aesthetically beautiful, everyday regular handwriting should and can be made beautiful and written with a style. According to me calligraphy is due to a purpose, where you intentionally alter the style of writing according to the theme and also at times it has a commercial value or is market oriented.

When i was in school the teachers and our parents stressed upon us for our handwriting to be good, legible and in a particular, presentable style. But this picture seems to have changed and is changing due to the introduction of new digital methods of learning. Who knows a decade or two from now onwards, cursive handwriting would meet the same fate as a script called Modi Lipi/Script (मोडी लिपी) met. 

Cursive style helps write fast and in continuity. This very thing makes writing enjoyable as you pick up a pace and its maintained throughout and it goes in a flow. This really gives me joy – The Joy of writing with Hand.

This blog explores the beauty and styles of writing , scripts, manuscripts and lots. Stay tuned for more.

#modiscript #antiques #archive #history #photography #nature #travelwriter #travel #instatravel #travelgram #tourism #instago #passportready #wanderlust  #india 
#fpgeeks #fountainpen #fountainpens #fountainpenink #inkpen #camlin #camlinink #camlinpen #camlininkpen #cursiveaddict #cursivefont #cursive #cursivehand #cursivehandwriting #cursivewriting #runningwriting #runningscript #runninghandwriting #romanscript #script #manuscriptology #manuscript